Senin, 22 November 2010

ADOLF LOOS

Adolf Loos (1870-1933) peringkat sebagai salah satu pelopor yang paling penting dari gerakan modern dalam arsitektur. Ironically, his influence was based largely on a few interior designs and a body of controversial essays. Adolf Loos 's buildings were rigorous examples of austere beauty, ranging from conventional country cottages to planar compositions for storefronts and residences. Ironisnya, pengaruhnya didasarkan terutama pada desain interior sedikit dan tubuh esai kontroversial yang Loos 's Adolf. Bangunan contoh ketat keindahan keras, mulai dari pondok-pondok negara konvensional ke planar komposisi untuk depan toko-toko dan tempat tinggal. His built compositions were little known outside his native Austria during his early years of practice. komposisi sendiri dibangun masih kecil dikenal di luar nya asli Austria selama tahun-tahun awal praktik.
 
Adolf Loos was born in Brno (Bruenn), Moravia, now Czech republic, on December 10, 1870. Adolf Loos lahir di Brno (Bruenn), Moravia, sekarang Republik Ceko, pada 10 Desember 1870.Adolf Loos was introduced to the craft of building at an early age while working in his father's stone masonry shop. Adolf Loos diperkenalkan kepada kerajinan bangunan pada usia dini saat bekerja di toko batu batu ayahnya. At the age of seventeen. Pada usia tujuh belas. Adolf Loos attended the Royal and Imperial State College at Reichenberg in Bohemia. Adolf Loos menghadiri Royal dan Imperial State College di Reichenberg di Bohemia. In 1889 Adolf Loos was drafted for one year of service in the Austrian army. Pada tahun 1889 Adolf Loos dirancang untuk satu tahun layanan di tentara Austria. From 1890 to 1893, Adolf Loos studied architecture at the Technical College in Dres den. Dari 1890 ke 1893, Adolf Loos belajar arsitektur di ruang Technical College Dres. As a student, Adolf Loos was particularly interested in the works of the classicist Schinkel and, above all, the works of Vitruvius. Sebagai mahasiswa, Adolf Loos terutama tertarik pada karya-karya klasik Schinkel dan, di atas semua, karya-karya Vitruvius.Adolf Loos 's developing tastes were considerably broadened during a three-year stay in the United States, which began in 1893. Adolf Loos 's mengembangkan selera yang jauh diperluas selama tinggal tiga tahun di Amerika Serikat, yang dimulai pada tahun 1893. The 23-year-old architect was particularly impressed by what Adolf Loos regarded as the innovative efficiency of US industrial buildings, clothing, and household furnishings. Arsitek 23 tahun sangat terkesan dengan apa yang Adolf Loos dianggap sebagai efisiensi inovatif bangunan industri AS, pakaian, dan perabot rumah tangga. In 1896, Adolf Loos returned to Vienna where Adolf Loos began working in the building firm of Carl Mayreder. Pada tahun 1896, Adolf Loos kembali ke Wina mana Adolf Loos mulai bekerja di perusahaan bangunan Carl Mayreder.
 
Pada tahun 1897, di halaman The Neue Freie Presse Wina, Adolf Loos memprakarsai serangkaian artikel polemik yang kemudian mendirikan reputasi internasional. Adolf Loos did not directly address architecture in his writings. Adolf Loos tidak langsung alamat arsitektur dalam tulisan-tulisannya. Instead, Adolf Loos examined a wide range of social ills, which Adolf Loos identified as the motivating factors behind the struggle for a transformation of everyday life. Sebaliknya, Adolf Loos memeriksa berbagai penyakit sosial, yang Adolf Loos diidentifikasi sebagai faktor pendorong di belakang perjuangan untuk transformasi kehidupan sehari-hari.Adolf Loos 's writings focused increasingly on what Adolf Loos regarded as the excess of decoration in both traditional Viennese design and in the more recent products of the Vienna Secession and the Wiener Werkstatte. tulisan Adolf Loos 'semakin berfokus pada apa yang Adolf Loos dianggap sebagai kelebihan dekorasi dalam rancangan Wina tradisional dan dalam produk-produk yang lebih baru dari Secession Wina dan Werkstatte Wiener. In 1898, in the pages of the review Ver Sacrum, which was an organ of the Wiener Secession, Adolf Loos published an essay that marked the beginning of a long theoretical opposition to the then popular art noveau movement. Pada tahun 1898, di halaman dari tinjauan Ver Sacrum, yang merupakan organ Wiener Secession, Adolf Loos menerbitkan sebuah esai yang menandai awal dari sebuah oposisi teoritis panjang untuk gerakan seni kemudian populer nouveau. His theories culminated in a short essay entitled, "Ornament And Crime," published in 1908. Teori-teorinya memuncak dalam sebuah esai singkat berjudul, "Ornament Dan Kejahatan," diterbitkan pada tahun 1908. To Adolf Loos, the lack of ornament in architecture was a sign of spiritual strength. Untuk Adolf Loos, kurangnya ornamen dalam arsitektur adalah tanda kekuatan rohani.Adolf Loos referred to the opposite, excessive ornamentation, as criminal - not for abstract moral reasons, but because of the economics of labor and wasted materials in modern industrial civilization. Adolf Loos dirujuk ke ornamen, sebaliknya yang berlebihan, sebagai kejahatan - bukan karena alasan moral abstrak, tetapi karena ekonomi tenaga kerja dan bahan-bahan terbuang dalam peradaban industri modern. Adolf Loos argued that because ornament was no longer an important manifestation of culture, the worker dedicated to its production could not be paid a fair price for his labor. Adolf Loos berpendapat bahwa karena ornamen tidak lagi manifestasi penting dari budaya, pekerja didedikasikan untuk produksi tidak dapat membayar harga yang wajar untuk kerjanya. The essay rapidly became a theoretical manifesto and a key document in modernist literature and was widely circulated abroad. Esai cepat menjadi sebuah manifesto teoritis dan dokumen penting dalam sastra modern dan beredar luas di luar negeri. Le Corbusier later attributed "an Homeric cleansing" of architecture to the work. Le Corbusier kemudian dikaitkan "pembersihan Homer" arsitektur untuk bekerja.
Another point of contention decried by Adolf Loos was the masking of the true nature and beauty of materials by useless and indecent ornament. Lain titik pertikaian mengecam oleh Adolf Loos adalah masking sifat benar dan keindahan bahan dengan ornamen tidak berguna dan tidak senonoh. In his 1898 essay entitled "Principles of Building," Adolf Loos wrote that the true vocabulary of architecture lies in the materials themselves, and that a building should remain "dumb" on the outside. Pada tahun 1898 esai berjudul "Prinsip Bangunan," tulis Adolf Loos bahwa kosa kata yang benar dari arsitektur terletak pada bahan sendiri, dan bahwa bangunan harus tetap "bodoh" di luar. In his own work, Adolf Loos contrasted austere facades with lavish interiors. Dalam karyanya sendiri, Adolf Loos kontras fasad keras dengan interior mewah. Much like Mies van der Rohe , Adolf Loos arrived at the reduction of architecture to a purely technical tautology that emphasized the simple assemblage of materials. Sama seperti Mies van der Rohe , Adolf Loos tiba di reduksi arsitektur ke tautologi teknis murni yang menekankan sekumpulan bahan sederhana. This article was followed by the 1910 essay entitled "Architecture," in which Adolf Loos explained important contradictions in design: between the interior and the exterior, the monument and the house, and art works and objects of function. Artikel ini kemudian diikuti oleh 1910 esai berjudul "Arsitektur," di mana Adolf Loos dijelaskan kontradiksi penting dalam desain: antara interior dan eksterior, monumen dan rumah, dan karya seni dan benda-benda fungsi. To Adolf Loos, the house did not belong to art because the house must please everyone, unlike a work of art, which does not need to please anyone. Untuk Adolf Loos, rumah itu bukan milik seni karena rumah harus menyenangkan semua orang, tidak seperti karya seni, yang tidak perlu untuk menyenangkan siapa pun. The only exception, that is, the only constructions that belong both to art and architecture, were the monument and the tombstone. Satu-satunya pengecualian, yaitu hanya konstruksi yang dimiliki baik untuk seni dan arsitektur, adalah monumen dan batu nisan. Adolf Loos felt that the rest of architecture, which by necessity must serve a specific end, must be excluded from the realm of art. Adolf Loos merasa bahwa sisa arsitektur, yang oleh kebutuhan harus melayani akhir tertentu, harus dikeluarkan dari dunia seni.
 
In 1899, Adolf Loos designed the Cafe Museum, which proved to be one of the most notable projects of his early work. Pada tahun 1899, Adolf Loos dirancang Museum Cafe, yang terbukti menjadi salah satu yang paling menonjol dari proyek-proyek awal bekerja. The austere interior was a mature architectural embodiment of his theorized renunciation of stylish ornamentation. Interior keras adalah perwujudan arsitektur dewasa nya berteori penolakan terhadap ornamen bergaya. The starkness of the "untattooed" facade that inspired the popular name Cafe Nihilismus asserted Adolf Loos 's developing theory of the predominance of technique over decoration. Para starkness dari fasad "untattooed" yang mengilhami nama populer Cafe Nihilismus menegaskan teori Adolf Loos 's berkembang dominasi teknik atas dekorasi. The cafe also affirms his aesthetic equation of beauty and utility by bringing every object back to its purely utilitarian value. Kafe ini juga menegaskan persamaan estetika tentang keindahan dan utilitas dengan membawa setiap objek kembali ke nilai murni utilitarian. To Adolf Loos, that which is beautiful must also be useful. Untuk Adolf Loos, bahwa yang indah juga harus berguna. Thus, the only elements Adolf Loos used to pattern the vaulted ceiling of the cafe interior were strips of brass, which also served as electrical conductors. Dengan demikian, hanya unsur-unsur Adolf Loos digunakan untuk pola langit-langit berkubah dari interior kafe itu strip dari kuningan, yang juga menjabat sebagai konduktor listrik. A more refined work, the tiny Karntner Bar Vienna (1907), reveals in microcosm the architect's great sensitivity to spatial manipulation. Sebuah karya yang lebih halus, kecil Kärntner Bar Wina (1907), mengungkapkan dalam mikrokosmos kepekaan besar arsitek untuk manipulasi spasial. Once again, Adolf Loos showed his fondness for the expressive use of natural materials as Adolf Loos skillfully manipulated classical materials including marble, onyx, wood, and mirror, into a careful composition of visual patterns. Sekali lagi, Adolf Loos menunjukkan kesukaannya pada penggunaan ekspresif bahan alam sebagai Adolf Loos terampil dimanipulasi bahan klasik termasuk marmer, onyx, kayu, dan cermin, ke dalam komposisi hati-hati pola visual.
 
Between 1909 and 1911, Adolf Loos designed and constructed one of his best known works, the controversial Looshaus in the Michaelerplatz, in the heart of old Vienna. Antara 1909 dan 1911, Adolf Loos dirancang dan dibangun salah satu karya terbaik diketahui, Looshaus kontroversial di Michaelerplatz, di jantung kota Wina tua. This complex design enunciated theorems on the relationship between the memory of the historic past of a great city and the invention of the new city based on the modern work of architecture. Ini desain yang kompleks diucapkan teorema pada hubungan antara memori dari masa lalu bersejarah sebuah kota besar dan penemuan kota baru didasarkan pada karya arsitektur modern. The design was characterized by a mute facade from which all ornamental plastic shapes were absent. Desain itu ditandai dengan fasad bisu dari mana semua bentuk plastik hias tidak hadir. For Adolf Loos, the language of the environment of the metropolis was centered in the absence of all ornament. Untuk Adolf Loos, bahasa lingkungan kota metropolitan berpusat di tidak adanya ornamen semua. In 1910, a public furor spawned by the simplicity of the modernistic design resulted in a municipal order to suspend work; construction ceased and building permits were denied. Pada tahun 1910, sebuah kehebohan publik menelurkan oleh kesederhanaan desain modern menghasilkan urutan kota untuk menunda pekerjaan; konstruksi berhenti dan izin bangunan ditolak. Adolf Loos responded to the attacks in a public meeting attended by more than 2000 angry residents. Adolf Loos menanggapi serangan di sebuah pertemuan publik yang dihadiri oleh lebih dari 2000 warga marah. The controversy ended with an agreement to add window boxes in an attempt to countrify and familiarize the unpopular design. Kontroversi ini berakhir dengan perjanjian untuk menambahkan kotak jendela dalam upaya untuk countrify dan membiasakan desain tidak populer.
 
Adolf Loos 's private residential works were characterized by unembellished white facades. Adolf Loos 's karya perumahan swasta ditandai dengan fasad putih unembellished. As a result, these buildings have routinely been associated with the work of Le Corbusier, JJ Oud, and others. Akibatnya, bangunan tersebut sudah rutin dikaitkan dengan karya Le Corbusier, JJ Oud, dan lain-lain. Among the more famous were the much published Steiner House (1910) and Scheu House (1912), both in Vienna. Di antara lebih terkenal adalah Steiner banyak diterbitkan House (1910) dan Scheu House (1912), keduanya di Wina. One of Adolf Loos 's best known projects was the entry for the Chicago Tribune Tower competition of 1922. Salah satu Adolf Loos 's terbaik proyek terkenal adalah entri untuk kompetisi Chicago Tribune Tower of 1922.Adolf Loos 's surprising combination of Doric columns at ground level with modern skyscraper technology indicated that Adolf Loos was less doctrinaire about ornament than his modernist colleagues believed. Adolf Loos 's kombinasi mengejutkan dari kolom Doric di permukaan tanah dengan teknologi pencakar langit modern menunjukkan bahwa Adolf Loos adalah doktriner kurang sekitar ornamen dari rekan-modernis Nya percaya. To Adolf Loos, the polished black granite columns, durable classical symbols in a building, were altogether useful and therefore beautiful. Untuk Adolf Loos, kolom granit dipoles hitam, simbol klasik tahan lama dalam membangun, yang sama sekali berguna dan karenanya indah.
 
Also in 1922, Adolf Loos was appointed to the post of Chief Architect of the Housing Department of the Commune of Vienna. Juga pada tahun 1922, Adolf Loos ditunjuk untuk jabatan Kepala Arsitek Departemen Perumahan Komune Wina. His projects during this time were primarily con structions modulated around simply-composed layouts utilizing basic construction technology. proyek-Nya selama ini adalah instruksi terutama con termodulasi sekitar layout hanya-terdiri memanfaatkan teknologi konstruksi dasar. Flexible interior arrangements were achieved through the use of movable partitions. pengaturan interior fleksibel yang dicapai melalui penggunaan partisi bergerak. Exteriors were typical of suburban housing Vegetable gardens, which were considered essential extensions of the dwellings, were assigned high priorities. Exteriors adalah kebun sayur khas perumahan pinggiran kota, yang dianggap ekstensi penting dari tempat tinggal, ditugaskan prioritas tinggi. Adolf Loos soon grew disillusioned with his work as chief architect. Adolf Loos segera tumbuh kecewa dengan pekerjaannya sebagai arsitek utama. As a result of his opposition to the then current ideology of Austrian Marxism, Adolf Loos resigned from his post the same year Adolf Loos was appointed. Sebagai hasil dari oposisinya terhadap ideologi saat itu Marxisme Austria, Adolf Loos mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya tahun yang sama Adolf Loos ditunjuk.
 
Adolf Loos moved to France in 1922. Adolf Loos pindah ke Perancis pada tahun 1922. Adolf Loos lived there until 1927, dividing his time between Paris and the Rivier with frequent journeys to Austria, Germany and Czechoslovakia. Adolf Loos tinggal di sana sampai 1927, membagi waktunya antara Paris dan Rivier dengan perjalanan sering ke Austria, Jerman dan Cekoslovakia. Adolf Loos was received enthusiastically by the French avantgarde. Adolf Loos diterima antusias oleh Avantgarde Perancis. His work entitled "Ornament and Crime" was translated in 1920 in Esprit Nouveau, a publication edited by Le Corbusier, Paul Dermee, and Ozenfant. Karyanya yang berjudul "Ornamen dan Kejahatan" diterjemahkan pada tahun 1920 di Esprit Nouveau, publikasi diedit oleh Le Corbusier, Paul Dermee, dan Ozenfant. Adolf Loos also exhibited regularly at d'Automne, and became the first foreigner to be elected to its jury. Adolf Loos juga dipamerkan secara teratur di Automne d', dan menjadi orang asing pertama yang terpilih menjadi jurinya. Adolf Loos built some of his most significant works during this period. Adolf Loos dibangun beberapa karya yang paling signifikan selama periode ini. These included The Tzara House in Paris (1926-1927), Villa Moller in Vienna (1928), Villa Muller (1930), Villa Winternitz in Prague (1931-1932) and the Khuner Country House at Payerbach in lower Austria. Ini termasuk Rumah Tzara di Paris (1926-1927), Villa Moller di Wina (1928), Villa Muller (1930), Villa Winternitz di Praha (1931-1932) dan Khuner Country House di Payerbach di bawah Austria. Monolithic in nature, these works contrasted greatly with the glass architecture that dominated rationalist styles of the 1920s. Monolitik di alam, karya-karya ini sangat kontras dengan arsitektur kaca yang didominasi gaya rasionalis tahun 1920-an. Once again, Adolf Loos as in a posture of contentious indifference to fluctuations in current taste. Sekali lagi, Adolf Loos seperti dalam sebuah sikap ketidakpedulian diperdebatkan dengan fluktuasi dalam rasa saat ini.
 
In 1930, on his sixtieth birthday, Adolf Loos was officially recognized as a master of architecture. Pada tahun 1930, pada hari ulang enam puluh itu, Adolf Loos secara resmi diakui sebagai master arsitektur.

ALBERT KAHN

Albert Kahn (1869-1942) lahir di Rhaunen, Jerman, anak tertua dari seorang rabi. The Kahns and their six children emigrated to the United States in 1880. Para Kahns dan enam anak mereka beremigrasi ke Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1880. Albert Kahn received his professional training as an apprentice to an architect with the firm of Mason and Rice in Detroit. In 1891, Albert Kahn was awarded a scholarship for a year's travel in Europe. Albert Kahn menerima pelatihan profesionalnya sebagai magang untuk seorang arsitek dengan perusahaan dari Mason dan Rice di Detroit. Pada tahun 1891, Albert Kahn dianugerahi beasiswa untuk tahun perjalanan di Eropa. During his travels Albert Kahn met the young architect Henry Bacon, and the two of them traveled together in Italy, France, Germany, and Belgium. Selama perjalanannya Albert Kahn bertemu dengan arsitek muda Henry Bacon, dan dua orang dari mereka bepergian bersama-sama di Italia, Prancis, Jerman, dan Belgia. In 1896, Albert Kahn married Ernestine Krolik and formed a partnership with George W. Nettleton and Alexander B. Trowbridge. Pada tahun 1896, Albert Kahn menikah Ernestine krolik dan membentuk kemitraan dengan George W. Nettleton dan Alexander B. Trowbridge. Trowbridge left to become dean of the Cornell University School of Architecture in 1897, Nettleton died in 1900, and by 1902, Albert Kahn was in practice alone. Trowbridge kiri untuk menjadi dekan dari Cornell University School of Arsitektur pada tahun 1897, Nettleton meninggal pada 1900, dan 1902, Albert Kahn dalam praktek sendirian. Albert Kahn 's practice is intenation-ally known for industrial work; his more traditional designs are less well known. praktek Albert Kahn adalah intenation-sekutu dikenal untuk kerja industri; desain yang lebih tradisional yang kurang dikenal.
 
Because Albert Kahn practiced in Detroit, Albert Kahn 's career closely followed the growth of the automotive industry. Karena Albert Kahn dipraktekkan di Detroit, karier Albert Kahn 'diikuti pertumbuhan industri otomotif. Albert Kahn was introduced to Henry B. Joy in 1902. Albert Kahn diperkenalkan kepada Henry B. Joy pada tahun 1902. Joy was instrumental in Albert Kahn 's selection for projects at the University of Michigan, and when Joy became manager of the Packard Motor Car Co. in 1903, Albert Kahn was named architeet for tbe company. Joy berperan dalam pemilihan Albert Kahn 'untuk proyek-proyek di University of Michigan, dan ketika Joy menjadi manajer Packard Mobil Motor Co pada tahun 1903, Albert Kahn bernama architeet bagi perusahaan atjalan. That same year, Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Co. Pada tahun yang sama, Henry Ford pendiri Ford Motor Co.
Albert Kahn 'kerja industriai awal konservatif di alam. Nine factories were designed between 1903 and 1905 for the Packard Motor Car Co. The first concreteframed building dated from 1905. Sembilan pabrik dirancang antara 1903 dan 1905 untuk Packard Mobil Motor Co Bangunan concreteframed pertama tanggal dari 1905. This advanced structural system depended on the manufacture of appropriate reinforcing rods. Sistem struktur lanjut tergantung pada pembuatan batang tulangan yang sesuai. Although Albert Kahn 's brother was an engineer and manufacturer of reinforcing, the Albert Kahn bar did not succeed in the market. Walaupun saudara Albert Kahn 'adalah seorang insinyur dan produsen memperkuat, bar Albert Kahn tidak berhasil di pasar. However, the experience with the concrete structure put Albert Kahn 's office in the forefront of industrial design. Namun, pengalaman dengan struktur beton menempatkan kantor Albert Kahn 'di garis depan desain industri.
 
Many industrial commissions followed. Banyak industri komisi diikuti. Rather than relegating the design to junior staff, Albert Kahn carefully designed the factories, using such designers as his associate Ernest Wilby to assist him. Daripada relegating desain untuk staf junior, Albert Kahn hati-hati dirancang pabrik-pabrik, menggunakan desainer seperti rekannya Ernest Wilby untuk membantunya. Albert Kahn 's factories were the first to use steel sash in conereteframed structures. pabrik Albert Kahn 'adalah yang pertama untuk menggunakan sabuk baja dalam struktur conereteframed. Albert Kahn helped develop buildings for continuously moving assembly lines. Albert Kahn membantu mengembangkan bangunan untuk terus bergerak lini perakitan. His factories were known for the maximum use of natural lighting and ventilation, using continuous strip windows, roof monitors, or skylights. pabrik-Nya dikenal untuk penggunaan maksimum pencahayaan alami dan ventilasi, dengan menggunakan jendela strip terus menerus, monitor atap, atau skylight. Albert Kahn pioneered the use o¾ longspan steel trusses, resuiting in large floor arens free of columns. Albert Kahn mempelopori penggunaan gulungan o longspan ¾ baja, resuiting di lantai Arens besar bebas kolom.
 
There were a number of fumous factories. Ada sejumlah pabrik fumous. Among the early ones was the Ford Motor Co. in Highland Park, Michigan (1909), which was under one roof. Di antara yang awal adalah Ford Motor Co di Highland Park, Michigan (1909), yang berada di bawah satu atap. Among later buildings for Ford was u 1918 building with cantilevered balconies insde the factory, allowing easier handling of materials and parts Plants for the Burroughs Adding Machine Co. in Detroit (l919) and for the Fisher Body Co. in Cleveland, Ohio (1921), were other early works. Di antara bangunan kemudian untuk Ford u 1918 bangunan dengan balkon kantilever insde pabrik, sehingga penanganan lebih mudah bahan dan Tanaman bagian untuk Burroughs Menambah Machine Co di Detroit (l919) dan untuk Fisher Tubuh Co di Cleveland, Ohio (1921) , adalah karya awal lainnya.
 
In 1917, Albert Kahn began the design of the Ford River Rouge Plant in Detroit. Pada tahun 1917, Albert Kahn mulai desain River Rouge Plant Ford di Detroit. The first of the buildings (Building B) was 0.5 mi long, housing the entire assembly hne for automobiles. Yang pertama dari bangunan (Gedung B) adalah 0,5 mi panjang, perumahan hne seluruh perakitan untuk mobil. In 1936, Albert Kahn designed the Chrysler Corp. plant in Detroit using large trusses and glass curtain walls In 1938, Albert Kahn designed another Chrysler Corp. plant at Warren Michigan, for the HalfTon Truck Plant of the Dodge Divil sion. Pada tahun 1936, Albert Kahn merancang pabrik Chrysler Corp di Detroit menggunakan gulungan besar dan dinding kaca tirai Pada tahun 1938, Albert Kahn dirancang pembangkit lainnya Chrysler Corp di Warren Michigan, untuk HalfTon Truck Plant dari sion Divil Dodge. It featured longspan trusses and roof monitors as well as glass curtain walls. Ini fitur gulungan longspan dan monitor atap serta dinding tirai kaca. This series of buildings was elegant in design, using advanced construction technology. Rangkaian bangunan yang elegan dalam desain, menggunakan teknologi konstruksi canggih.
 
Albert Kahn 's office designed many other buildings in addition to the industrial work. kantor Albert Kahn 'dirancang bangunan lain di samping kerja industri. These included several buildings for the University of Michigan, office buildings such as the General Motors Building in Detroit, and luxury residential projects, particularly for the homes of automotive executives. Ini termasuk beberapa bangunan untuk University of Michigan, bangunan kantor seperti General Motors Building di Detroit, dan proyek-proyek perumahan mewah, terutama untuk rumah eksekutif otomotif.
 
Albert Kahn 's World War II buildings included the Glen Martin bomber plant at Baltimore and the Willow Run Bomber plant for Ford, later used for automobile manufacture and assembly. Albert Kahn 's Perang Dunia II bangunan termasuk tanaman pembom Glen Martin di Baltimore dan Willow Run tanaman Bomber untuk Ford, kemudian digunakan untuk pembuatan mobil dan perakitan. Because of wartime blackout regulations. Karena peraturan pemadaman masa perang. the latter building was windowless and electrically lit. bangunan terakhir ini berjendela dan elektrik menyala.
 
Albert Kahn worked continuously up to 1942. Albert Kahn bekerja terus menerus sampai dengan 1942. completing 57 years o¾ practice as an architeet. menyelesaikan 57 tahun o ¾ praktek sebagai sebuah architeet. and the firm continues under the name of Albert Kahn Associates, Inc. A high point of Albert Kahn 's fame was his influence on European work. dan perusahaan terus atas nama Albert Kahn Associates, Inc Sebuah titik tinggi ketenaran Albert Kahn 'adalah pengaruh pekerjaan Eropa. In 1929, a Soviet commission touring Delroit asked him to design a tractor plant in Stalingrad This turned out so well that the firm built over 500 factories in the USSR in two years and trained many Soviet engineers and technicians to assist in the building program. Pada tahun 1929, sebuah komisi Soviet tur Delroit memintanya untuk merancang sebuah pabrik traktor di Stalingrad ini ternyata sangat baik sehingga perusahaan yang dibangun lebih dari 500 pabrik di Uni Soviet dalam dua tahun dan dilatih insinyur Soviet banyak dan teknisi untuk membantu dalam program pembangunan.
 
The comparison of Albert Kahn 's work with Peter Behrens's monumental work in Germany for the AEG or Walter Gropius's and Adolph Meyers's 1911 Fagus Shoelast Factory at Alfeld an der Liene clarifies Ihe differences between European and American approaches. Perbandingan karya Albert Kahn 'dengan karya monumental Peter Behrens di Jerman untuk AEG atau Walter Gropius dan Adolph Meyers 1911 Shoelast Pabrik Fagus di Alfeld an der Liene PTAI menjelaskan perbedaan antara pendekatan Eropa dan Amerika. The European examples were more designed. Contoh-contoh Eropa lebih dirancang. with the use of brick, neoclassic forms, and delight in the technology that allowed such details as wrapping glass around corners. dengan menggunakan batu bata, bentuk neoclassic, dan kegembiraan dalam teknologi yang memungkinkan rincian seperti membungkus kaca sekitar sudut. The spirit of that work differs from Knhn. Semangat kerja yang berbeda dari Knhn. who evolved industrial buildings without prototypes or use of traditional design concepts. yang berevolusi bangunan industri tanpa prototipe atau penggunaan konsep desain tradisional. The industrial building was of contiunued aesthetic interest as reflected in Gropius's design of the Bauhaus at Dessau. Bangunan industri adalah kepentingan estetika contiunued sebagaimana tercermin dalam desain Gropius terhadap Bauhaus di Dessau. Germany. Jerman. in 1926 The best of Albert Kahn 's work implies a different aesthetic based on simple construction. pada tahun 1926 Yang terbaik dari karya Albert Kahn 'mengimplikasikan estetika yang berbeda berdasarkan konstruksi sederhana. standard materials, and ease of construction. bahan baku, dan kemudahan konstruksi. In this sense it was more like the manufactured product than a symbolic interpretation. Dalam hal ini lebih mirip produk diproduksi dari interpretasi simbolik.
 

ALDO ROSSI

Aldo Rossi (lahir 1931), salah satu arsitek yang paling berpengaruh selama periode 1972-1988, telah dicapai prestasi yang luar biasa untuk mencapai pengakuan internasional dalam tiga bidang yang berbeda:, menggambar, dan arsitektur. Teori Setelah menerima gelar arsitektur di Universitas Politeknik di Milan pada tahun 1959, Aldo Rossi menjabat sebagai asisten kursus untuk menonjol arsitek dan Carlo Ludovico Quaroni Aymonino. Aldo Rossi became a faculty member in the School of Architecture in Milan in 1965 and at the University in Venice in 1975. Aldo Rossi menjadi staf pengajar di Sekolah Arsitektur di Milan pada tahun 1965 dan di Universitas di Venice pada tahun 1975. In addition to these regular appointments, his growing fame brought him positions as a professor in Zurich, Spain, and the United States. Selain pertemuan rutin, ketenaran mulai berkembang membawanya posisi sebagai profesor di Zurich, Spanyol, dan Amerika Serikat.
 
Aldo Rossi 's career as a theorist began to take shape during the years Aldo Rossi worked with Ernesto Rogers on the leading Italian architecture magazine Casabella-Continuita (1955-1964). Aldo Rossi karir sebagai seorang teoretisi mulai terbentuk selama tahun-tahun Aldo Rossi bekerja dengan Ernesto Rogers pada majalah arsitektur terkemuka Italia Casabella-Continuita (1955-1964). In 1966 Aldo Rossi published the book The Architecture of the City, which subsequently was translated into several languages and enjoyed enormous international success. Pada tahun 1966 Aldo Rossi menerbitkan buku The Arsitektur Kota, yang kemudian diterjemahkan ke dalam beberapa bahasa dan menikmati kesuksesan internasional yang sangat besar. Spurning the then fashionable debates on style, Aldo Rossi instead criticized the lack of understanding of the city in current architectural practice. Spurning kemudian perdebatan modis pada gaya, Aldo Rossi bukannya mengkritik kurangnya pemahaman kota dalam praktek arsitektur saat ini. Aldo Rossi argued that a city must be studied and valued as something constructed over time; of particular interest are urban artifacts that withstand the passage of time. Aldo Rossi berpendapat bahwa sebuah kota harus dipelajari dan dihargai sebagai sesuatu yang dibangun dari waktu ke waktu; kepentingan tertentu artefak kota yang menahan berlalunya waktu. Despite the modern movement polemics against monuments, for example. Meskipun polemik gerakan modern terhadap monumen, misalnya. Aldo Rossi held that the city remembers its past and uses that memory through monuments; that is, monuments give structure to the city. Aldo Rossi berpendapat bahwa kota mengingat masa lalu dan menggunakan memori melalui monumen, yaitu monumen memberi struktur ke kota.
Pemahaman kota dan elemente nya, monumen, dan permanences nya, informasi Aldo Rossi 's desain sendiri untuk bangunan umum. One of his earliest major public buildings was the addition to the existing cemetery of the city of Modena in northern Italy. Salah satu bangunan paling awal di depan publik utama adalah penambahan ke pemakaman yang ada kota Modena di Italia utara. Perceiving the cemetery as a repository of social meaning, Aldo Rossi conceived of it as a house for the dead, indeed, a city of the dead. Menanggapi kuburan sebagai repositori makna sosial, Aldo Rossi dipahami sebagai rumah untuk kota, memang, mati seorang yang mati. The elemental architectonic forms, as in the elegant stereometrie volumes of the ossuary with its chamfered windows, reflect his ongoing investigations into building typology, that which remains beyond the particular and the concrete. Bentuk-bentuk arsitektonis unsur, seperti dalam volume stereometrie elegan dari osuarium dengan jendela dibentuk tidak terputus nya, mencerminkan investigasi yang sedang berlangsung ke dalam tipologi bangunan, yang tetap di luar tertentu dan beton.
 
The primary elements of architecture are repeated again and again in his work as Aldo Rossi engages in a determined search for essential forms based on what Aldo Rossi refers to as "repetition and fixation." Unsur-unsur utama dari arsitektur diulang lagi dan lagi dalam pekerjaannya sebagai Aldo Rossi terlibat dalam pencarian ditentukan untuk bentuk penting berdasarkan apa Aldo Rossi merujuk sebagai "pengulangan dan fiksasi." Aldo Rossi attempts to recover the "immovable elements of architecture," not as empty catalogs of forms but as a search for an ageless originality found in formal types. Aldo Rossi upaya untuk memulihkan "unsur-unsur arsitektur tidak bergerak," bukan sebagai bentuk katalog kosong tetapi sebagai sebuah pencarian untuk sebuah orisinalitas awet muda ditemukan di tipe formal. Understood in this fashion, architecture, Aldo Rossi claims, helps make sense of the lived reality of the world. Dipahami dalam arsitektur, fashion, Aldo Rossi klaim, membantu memahami realitas hidup dunia. lt also provides the fixed scene of human events, which the architect historically has not been able to foresee. lt juga menyediakan tempat tetap kejadian manusia, yang arsitek historis belum mampu meramalkan. The most enduring architecture has been that which, in Aldo Rossi 's words, "stopped short of the event." Arsitektur yang paling abadi adalah bahwa yang, dalam kata-kata s Aldo Rossi, "berhenti acara." Aldo Rossi gave these ideas built form in the school at Fagnano Olona, for example, where the grand stepped podium leads to the gymnasium; and provides a place where class photographs can be taken, a school ritual in both Italy and the United States. Aldo Rossi memberikan ide-ide ini dibangun formulir di sekolah di Fagnano Olona, misalnya, di mana podium grand melangkah mengarah ke gimnasium, dan menyediakan tempat di mana foto-foto kelas dapat diambil, sebuah ritual sekolah di kedua Italia dan Amerika Serikat. Such rituals, says Aldo Rossi, give the "comfort of continuity, repetition, compelling us to an oblique forgetfulness"; the architecture should provide the backdrop against which they can be played out. ritual tersebut, kata Aldo Rossi, memberikan "kenyamanan kontinuitas, pengulangan, memaksa kita untuk sebuah kelupaan miring"; arsitektur harus memberikan latar belakang terhadap yang mereka bisa dimainkan.
In the project for the Carlo Felice Theater in Genoa, Aldo Rossi 's task was to replace the theater that was bombed in World War II. Dalam proyek untuk Carlo Felice Theater di Genoa, tugas Aldo Rossi 'adalah untuk menggantikan teater yang dibom pada Perang Dunia II. His project leaves the old facade intact but accommodates full complex of new functions and spaces. proyek-Nya meninggalkan fasad tua utuh tetapi menampung kompleks penuh fungsi-fungsi baru dan ruang. The stereometric architectural forms convey an originality that at the same time transcends time and asserts a powerful presence in the urban fabric. Bentuk arsitektur stereometric menyampaikan sebuah orisinalitas yang pada saat yang sama melampaui waktu dan menegaskan kehadiran kuat di kain perkotaan. Here and elsewhere Aldo Rossi avoids historical and technological detailing in favor of preserving the integrity of the volumes, which then convey the quality of structures that have stood since antiquity. Di sini dan di tempat lain Aldo Rossi menghindari sejarah dan teknologi merinci mendukung menjaga integritas dari volume, yang kemudian menyampaikan kualitas struktur yang telah berdiri sejak jaman dahulu.
 
For Aldo Rossi, public buildings often become miniature versions of the city, particularly his schools and his Teatro del Mondo for the 1980 Venice Biennale. Untuk Aldo Rossi, gedung-gedung publik sering menjadi versi miniatur kota, khususnya sekolah-sekolah dan Teatro del Mondo nya untuk tahun 1980 Venice Biennale. At Fagnano Olona, Aldo Rossi organized a series of elements (rotunda, cubic block, conical smokestack) around a central count and approached along linear elements such as a street, a bridge, or a wall axially aligned with the central elements, a disposition that recalls Italian city planning Such an organization also characterizes the school in Broni, where the library recalls historic models such as the anatomical theaters of Padua and Bologna. Pada Fagnano Olona, Aldo Rossi menyelenggarakan serangkaian elemen (rotunda, blok kubik, cerobong kerucut) sekitar hitungan pusat dan mendekati sepanjang unsur-unsur linier seperti jalan, jembatan, atau dinding aksial selaras dengan unsur-unsur pusat, disposisi yang ingat kota di Italia perencanaan organisasi tersebut juga mencirikan sekolah di Broni, di mana perpustakaan ingat model bersejarah seperti teater anatomi Padua dan Bologna. In turn, these types informed his Teatro del Mondo floating in the canals of Venice; like the city, the theater is also a stage, and simply miniaturizes the activity and organization of the city. Pada gilirannya, jenis informasi nya Teatro del Mondo mengambang di kanal-kanal Venesia, seperti kota, teater juga panggung, dan hanya miniaturizes kegiatan dan organisasi kota. In the same way, Aldo Rossi denies that Aldo Rossi creates the elements that regularly recur in his work; instead, Aldo Rossi discovers them in the city, especially the cities in Italy that Aldo Rossi knows and loves best; Milan, Mantua, and Venice. Dengan cara yang sama, Aldo Rossi menyangkal bahwa Aldo Rossi menciptakan unsur-unsur yang secara teratur berulang dalam karyanya, melainkan, Aldo Rossi menemukan mereka di kota, terutama kota-kota di Italia bahwa Aldo Rossi mengetahui dan mencintai terbaik; Milan, Mantua, dan Venesia.
 
Even before the success that Aldo Rossi has enjoyed in the last decade with projects underway from Japan to Germany, Aldo Rossi achieved singular distinction for his drawings. Bahkan sebelum keberhasilan yang Aldo Rossi telah menikmati dalam dekade terakhir dengan berlangsung proyek dari Jepang ke Jerman, Aldo Rossi mencapai perbedaan tunggal untuk gambar nya. Although one of his professors tried to discourage him from studying architecture on the grounds that Aldo Rossi drew as if Aldo Rossi were a rural builder, Aldo Rossi was not disrouraged. Walaupun salah satu profesornya mencoba untuk mencegah dia dari mempelajari arsitektur dengan alasan bahwa Aldo Rossi menarik seolah-olah Aldo Rossi adalah pembangun pedesaan, Aldo Rossi tidak disrouraged. Inspired by the urban landscapes of Italian painters Mario Sironi and Giorgio Morandi, Aldo Rossi produces haunting images in which his buildings and others in the city shrink, while everyday objects such as coffeepots and cigarette packs swell to fill the frame. Terinspirasi oleh pemandangan perkotaan pelukis Italia Mario Sironi dan Giorgio Morandi, Aldo Rossi menghantui menghasilkan gambar di mana bangunan dan orang lain di kota menyusut, sementara benda-benda sehari-hari seperti coffeepots dan bungkus rokok membengkak untuk mengisi frame. The drawings conflate historical buildings, built and unbuilt projects by Aldo Rossi, mundane utensils, and shadowy figures occupying tiny cabins or yellow windows, and the same images, combined and reshuffled, reappear regularly, just as the cube and the cone reappear in his buildings. Gambar-gambar conflate bangunan bersejarah, dibangun dan proyek terbangun oleh Aldo Rossi, peralatan biasa, dan tokoh-tokoh bayangan kabin kecil menempati atau jendela kuning, dan gambar yang sama, gabungan dan reshuffle, muncul kembali secara teratur, seperti kubus dan kerucut muncul kembali di gedung-gedung nya.
 
The recurrence coffeepots in his increasingly wellknown drawings eventually induced the Italian firm Alessi to commission him to design a line of coffeepots and even, eventually, a watch that recalls those of his childhood schoolrooms. coffeepots kekambuhan ini dalam gambar yang semakin terkenal akhirnya diinduksi perusahaan Italia Alessi untuk komisi dia untuk merancang garis coffeepots dan bahkan, akhirnya, jam tangan yang mengingatkan orang-orang dari schoolrooms masa kecilnya.
 
Although Aldo Rossi 's first projects, for a housing complex on the outskirts of Milan (Gallaratese 1969-1974), the San Cataldo cemetery in Modena (begun 1972), and Fagnano Olona School in Varese (1972-77), were contemporary with the publication of his most important theoretical works, only in the late 1970s and 1980s did his building work begin in earnest, and only in the last few years has his fame brought him a significant numberr of commissions in Italy. Meskipun Aldo Rossi proyek pertama, untuk sebuah kompleks perumahan di pinggiran Milan (Gallaratese 1969-1974), San Cataldo pemakaman di Modena (mulai 1972), dan Fagnano Olona School di Varese (1972-77), yang kontemporer dengan publikasi karya yang paling penting dalam teori, hanya di akhir 1970-an dan 1980-an melakukan pekerjaan pembangunan nya dimulai dengan sungguh-sungguh, dan hanya dalam beberapa tahun terakhir telah ketenarannya membawakan numberr signifikan komisi di Italia.
 
Two civic center projects in Italy indicate the range of his responses to a similar program. Dua proyek pusat sipil di Italia menunjukkan berbagai tanggapan untuk program serupa. In Perugia, a large civic center (1988). Dalam Perugia, pusat sipil besar (1988). with town hall, theater, and housing project, is elevated on a parking podium and mediates between the historic city and the postwar business center. dengan balai kota, teater, dan proyek perumahan, ditinggikan di podium parkir dan menengahi antara kota bersejarah dan pusat bisnis pasca perang. The U-shaped Town Hall, with shops below and offices above, is bisected by a galleria raised high on slender piers. Kota berbentuk U-Hall, dengan toko-toko di bawah ini dan kantor-kantor di atas, membelah oleh galleria sebuah mengangkat tinggi pada pilar ramping. Adjoining the town hall but irregularly placed on the parking podium are the theater, with its freestanding conical entrance tower, and a long, slender housing block. Berdampingan dengan balai kota, tetapi tidak teratur ditempatkan di podium parkir teater, dengan menara pintu masuk berbentuk kerucut berdiri bebas, dan blok, panjang ramping perumahan. The disposition suggests an accretion of disparate buildings over time rather than a complex planned for uniformity. disposisi menyarankan suatu pertambahan bangunan yang berbeda dari waktu ke waktu daripada sebuah kompleks yang direncanakan untuk keseragaman. Although here as elsewhere drawing on simple local types, Aldo Rossi also transforms them, as Aldo Rossi does with the public arcade that slices through the town hall. Meskipun di sini seperti di tempat lain menggambar pada jenis lokal sederhana, Aldo Rossi juga mengubah mereka, sebagai Aldo Rossi tidak dengan arcade publik yang irisan melalui balai kota.
 
The town hall for the small village of Borgoricco demanded an altogether different response. Balai kota untuk desa kecil Borgoricco menuntut respon yang sama sekali berbeda. Although Aldo Rossi adopted the U-shaped plan again, Aldo Rossi opens it up here with a south-facing courtyard framed on one end by copper clad, barrel-vaulted roofs that cascade down over the meeting room and the archives The simple elemental forms of the massive Perugia project give way here to a more complex massing and a greater play of materials, Each of the three principal views is articulated in markedly different ways, yet ordered and related by such elements us the narrow brick walls that rise through the full two stories. Meskipun Aldo Rossi mengadopsi rencana U-berbentuk lagi, Aldo Rossi membukanya di sini dengan halaman yang menghadap selatan berbingkai pada sisi akhir oleh tembaga dipalut, atap barel-berkubah yang cascade ke bawah ruang rapat dan arsip Bentuk-bentuk unsur sederhana Perugia proyek besar memberi jalan di sini untuk suatu massa yang lebih kompleks dan bermain lebih besar bahan, Masing-masing dari tiga pandangan utama adalah diartikulasikan dengan cara yang sangat berbeda, namun teratur dan terkait dengan unsur-unsur seperti dinding bata kita sempit yang naik melalui dua penuh cerita.
 
Two other major recent private commercial projects in Italy are worth noting. Dua lainnya besar baru-baru ini proyek-proyek komersial swasta di Italia yang perlu diperhatikan. For the GFT fashion group in Turin, Aldo Rossi designed an office building on an L-shaped site with an angled corner entrance of smooth brick. Untuk kelompok fashion GFT di Turin, Aldo Rossi dirancang suatu gedung perkantoran di situs berbentuk L dengan pintu masuk sudut miring dari batu bata halus. Aldo Rossi repeats a motif from Borgoricco when Aldo Rossi anchors the entrance with giant double columns surmounted by a green steel I-beam lintel. Aldo Rossi mengulangi motif dari Borgoricco ketika Aldo Rossi jangkar pintu masuk dengan kolom ganda raksasa diatasi oleh baja hijau I-balok ambang pintu. By incorporating a smaller version of the double column I-beam lintel motif in the auditorium. Dengan menggabungkan versi yang lebih kecil dari kolom dua motif balok-I ambang pintu di auditorium. Aldo Rossi emphasizes the parallel between public, urban scale and the theater as a smaller version of the city. Aldo Rossi menekankan paralel antara masyarakat, skala perkotaan dan teater sebagai versi kecil dari kota. Street elevations of the two lateral wings incorporate stone porticoes, a traditional urban element in the Piedmontese city, but Aldo Rossi also modulates the surface by extending the stone revetment up to the first floor and framing the stone piers with green steel I-beams. peningkatan Street dari dua sayap lateral menggabungkan portico batu, elemen perkotaan tradisional di kota Piedmont, tetapi Aldo Rossi juga memodulasi permukaan dengan memperpanjang revetmen batu sampai ke lantai pertama dan membingkai dermaga batu dengan baja hijau I-balok. A regional shopping center outside Parma rises up out of the flat plains with 50-ft-high brick towers that both carry the name of the center and provide a setting for billboards and advertising. Sebuah pusat perbelanjaan daerah luar Parma naik dari dataran datar dengan menara bata 50-ft-tinggi yang baik membawa nama pusat dan menyediakan setting untuk billboard dan iklan.
 
A hotel complex in Fukuoka, Japan, an architecture school for the University of Miami, Florida, and a victory in a major competition for the Museum of Natural History in Berlin promise further opportunities to render the ideas Aldo Rossi explored in Architecture of the City in built form. Sebuah kompleks hotel di Fukuoka, Jepang, sebuah sekolah arsitektur untuk University of Miami, Florida, dan kemenangan di kompetisi utama untuk Museum Sejarah Alam di Berlin menjanjikan peluang lebih lanjut untuk membuat ide-ide Aldo Rossi dieksplorasi dalam bentuk Arsitektur Kota.

Selasa, 16 November 2010

RICHARD MEIER

Richard Meier was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1934. Richard Meier graduated from Cornell University in 1957 then worked with a series of architects, including Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill and Marcel Breuer. Richard Meier established his own practice in 1963.

His practice has included housing and private residences, museums, high-tech and medical facilities, commercial buildings and such major civic commissions as courthouses and city halls in the United States and Europe: Among his most well-known projects are the High Museum in Atlanta; the Frankfurt Museum for Decorative Arts In Germany; Canal+ Television Headquarters in Paris; the Hartford Seminary In Connecticut; the Atheneun in New Harmony, Indiana, and the Bronx Developmental Center in New York. All of these have received National Honor Awards from the American Institute of Architects (AIA).

In 1984, Mr. Richard Meier was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize, considered the field's highest honor and often equated with the Nobel Prize. In the same year, Mr. Richard Meier was selected architect for the prestigious commission to design the new $1 billion Getty Center in Los Angeles, California.

Richard Meier has maintained a specific and unalterable attitude toward the design of buildings from the moment Richard Meier first entered architecture. Although his later projects show a definite refinement from his earlier projects, Richard Meier clearly authored both based on the same design concepts. With admirable consistency and dedication, Richard Meier has ignored the fashion trends of modern architecture and maintained his own design philosophy. Richard Meier has created a series of striking, but related designs. Richard Meier usually designs white Neo-Corbusian forms with enameled panels and glass. These structure usually play with the linear relationships of ramps and handrails. Although all have a similar look, Richard Meier manages to generate endless variations on his singular theme.

Richard Meier, the main figure in the "New York Five", which by the second half of the 1960's, included some of the leaders of the Post-Modern movement - Peter Eisenman, John Hejduk, Michael Graves and Charles Gwathmey, creates designs with a unified theme based on neo-modern beliefs in purist architecture. Richard Meier 's white sculptural pieces have created a new vocabulary of design for the 1980s.

The three of the most significant concepts of Richard Meier 's work are Light, Color and Place. His architecture shows how plain geometry, layered definition of spaces and effects of light and shade, allow Richard Meier to create clear and comprehensible spaces. The main issue Richard Meier is focusing on as an architect, is what Richard Meier termed placeness: "What is it that makes a space a place." According to Richard Meier there are ten factors that connect a building to its environment, one or more of which must be present for a space to be a place: factors which cause the Mode of Being; those which emphasize the presence of the building as an independent object; factors which emphasize the presence of the building in its given environment; those which encourage fantasy and play; factors which encourage ecstatic exuberance; factors which preserve a sense of mystery and adventure; ingredients which connect us to reality; those which link the building to its past; facilitate spontaneous exchanges; and affirm people's identity.

On the grounds of such theoretical definitons, it is interesting to see how space is transformed in Richard Meier 's architecture, from a rational play of forms into transcendental, quintessential forms framed by and interlaced in landscape. Especially in view of such declarations as: "Places are goals or foci where we experience the meaningful events of our existence, but there are also points of departure from which we orient ourselves and take possession of the environment. A place is something that evokes a notion of permanence and stability in us."

The Atheneum (1975-1979) is a Tourist and Information Center situated on the banks of the Wabash River on the outskirts of the historic city of New Harmony. Setting the three-story building diagonally to the river, gives the project a dynamic dimension asa departure point for the tour path. Fragments of the city framed in the windows of the exhibit space prepare the visitor for a general view seen from the roof gallery. Here, "sense of place" is achieved through a series of visual, physical or psychological experiences which gradually establish a relationship to the past, represented by the historic city. Porcelain panels, clear glass, constant play of wall thickness, the breadth of vistas, the height of the columns and openings which interconnect with one another, all create dynamic facades that change according to the interior and exterior experience of the building.

Hartford Seminary of Theology (1978-1981) in Connecticut is a relatively small building (3,000 sqm.), which includes all the campus functions originally distributed in various buildings: the church, Congress Hall, library, bookshop, classrooms, and administration. A building of spirituality, the integral values and characteristics of space and light are radiated without any false pretensions. As a religious introversive institution that also serves the community, the building is based on a fine separation between public and private space. The filtered light, clean forms and expressionist textures successfully contribute to endow a rather sacred atmosphere without disturbing the virtue of openness.

His white is never white since it is subject to constant change through the forces of nature: the sky, the weather, the vegetation, the clouds and, of course - the light. This is clearly portrayed in The High Museum of Art in Atlanta (1980-1983) - a project that has become Richard Meier 's hallmark in many respects - a classical manifestation of his profound allegiance to whiteness. A combination of asymmetrical compositions of various types of planes and masses based on transparent straight and curvilinear walls, form the exterior of the building. Its entrance atrium at the corner of one of the four clusters presents a tribute and memorandum to the Guggenheim museum. Yet unlike the original, in this museum a majestic ramp only provides access between the various levels, while the atrium walls include windows to allow for a view of the city brinqinq in natural light.

Spatial clarity and visual diversity create a clear hierarchy of spaces, giving the building a "classical" expression, in spite of its asymmetrical appearance. The monastic whiteness of the interior space maintains the minimalist presence of architecture in relationship to the exhibits, while the natural light causes a constantly changing interior.

The Museum for the Decorative Arts in Frankfurt (1979-1985) is another manifestation of Richard Meier 's sense of historic order. Here, Richard Meier converts the plan of a 19th century Villa Melzer into a public complex, reinforcing the connection with the unique historical context. Composed of two tilted grids, the plan balances the deviations of the original building in relation to the river. The choice of Richard Meier 's light and white scheme corresponds to the open character of space. Yet, unlike the use of light in Classical or Renaissance architecture, in this building the spiritual illuminating scheme of a Baroque character is adopted. Here again, illumination is not just perceived as a visual occurrence, but rather as an emotional and even spiritual phenomenon. Light and color do not just draw out the structural and functional properties of the building, but also call out an aesthetic response, creating a unique atmosphere, which generates positive emotions. Thus, the continuous dialogue between the building, its environment and its essential functionalism, acquires a didactic meaning.

Situated on a hill above Santa Monica, Los Angeles, the Paul Getty Center (1984-1997) is the most comprehensive work of Richard Meier, yet nonetheless a proof of the final decline of Post-Modernism. However, some would say that this ostentatious project recalls the timeless beauty of sixteenth century Italian villas and gardens, perhaps that of Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli. The campus consists of six principal buildings that are situated on two natural ridges incorporated into the site's topography. The tilting of the plan (that has tumed into Richard Meier 's light motive) is based here on the relationship between the route of the freeway to San Diego and the topographic orientation of the site.

Richard Meier 's choice of materials in this complex is quite untypical. Although the structure is clear and decipherable, it is complex in plan and overly rich in texture. The play of volumes and proportions, manifested in the cascade of terraces and balconies, flow of ramps, galleries, arcades and staircases, weave the interplay of nature and architecture, yet reflects affinity to Classical architecture.

Thus, one may conclude that the Getty Center portrays three key points that characterize good architecture: interaction, consistency and unity. Architectural quality is experienced when "architecture can be used for a long span of time, when it ages beautifully, is original, comprehensible and simple to use".

LE CORBUSIER

Le Corbusier (nama asli: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret; 6 Oktober 1887–27 Agustus 1965) adalah arsitek Swiss yang terkenal dalam aliran rancangan/desain International Style bersama dengan Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, dan Theo van Doesburg. Ia juga adalah seorang perencana perkotaan, pelukis, pemahat, penulis dan perancang perabot.

Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, yang dikenal dengan sebutan Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), adalah seorang arsitek dan penulis kelahiran Perancis-Swiss, yang sangat terkenal karena kontribusinya pada modernisme atau international-style.

Le Corbusier adalah seorang ahli dalam teori-teori desain modern dan beliau sangat berdedikasi dalam menghasilkan kehidupan yang lebih baik pada kota dan tempat tinggal yang cukup padat. Kariernya berjalan selama lima decade dengan begitu banyak bangunan yang telah dibangun tersebar di sepanjang Eropa, India, Rusia, dan dua di Amerika. Ia juga seorang perancang kawasan, pelukis, pematung, penulis, dan perancang modern furniture. 

1887-1913 Life and Education Beliau dilahirkan sebagai Charles-Edouard Jeanneret di La Chaux-de-Fonds, sebuah kota kecil Neuchâtel canton di bagian timur laut Swiss, tepatnya di pegunungan Jura, yang hanya 5km dari perbatasan Perancis. Le Corbusier tertarik pada visual art dan menempuh pendidikannya di La-Chaux-de-Fonds Art School. Guru Arsitekturnya pada masa itu adalah arsitek René Chapallaz, yang kemudian menjadi pengaruh terbesar pada desain beliau pada awal karier beliau. Pada awal kariernya sebagai arsitek, Le Corbusier lebih banyak mendesain villa-villa, seperti: Villa Fallet, Villa Schwob, dan Villa Jeanneret-villa ini didekasikan untuk orang tuanya- di La Chaux-de-Fonds. Villa-villa ini merupakan suatu karya arsitektur vernacular yang popular di negara-negara sepanjang pegunungan Alpen. 

Pada awal tahun-tahun kariernya, ia kemudian memutuskan untuk mencari pengalaman di tempat lain agar lepas dari hal-hal yang mengikat kreativitasnya di kota kelahirannya. Ia memutuskan untuk melakukan perjalanan berkeliling Eropa. Pada tahun 1907 beliau sampai di Paris, di mana kemudian Beliau bekerja pada Auguste Perret, seorang ahli beton dari Perancis. Antara Oktober 1910 dan Maret 1911, beliau bekerja pada Peter Behrens di dekat kota Berlin, di mana kemudian beliau bertemu dengan Ludwig Mies van der Rohe dan Walter Gropius. Setelah itu. Ia menjadi salah satu arsitek yang cukup berpengaruh di Jerman, di mana pengalaman beliau pada masa itu membawa pengaruh yang cukup besar pada hasil karya beliau selanjutnya.

Pada akhir tahun 1911, beliau melakukan perjalanan ke semenanjung Balkan untuk mengunjungi Yunani dan Turki sambil menggambar banyak sketsa bangunan di sana termasuk Kuil Parthenon, yang kemudian dimasukkan oleh beliau dalam Vers une architecture (1923). Vers une architecture, yang dapat diartikan sebagai “Towards a New Architecture” marupakan kumpulan esai Le Corbusier. Esai-esai tersebut biasa terbit dalam jurnal berbahasa Perancis L'Esprit Nouveau, di mana pada jurnal tersebut terdapat teori-teori Le Corbusier yang mencakup Teori Arsitektur Modern. 1914-1930 Career: The Villas Selama Perang Dunia I, Le Corbusier mengajar di sekolah lamanya La-Chaux-de-Fonds Art School, dan tidak kembali ke Paris sampai perang tersebut berakhir. Selama 4 tahun di Swiss, beliau menelaah banyak teori-teori arsitektur yang menggunakan kaidah teknik arsitektur modern. 

Salah satu karya beliau pada masa itu adalah “Domino House” (1914-1915). Desain tersebut kemudian menjadi dasar dari sebagian besar karya beliau sampai 10 tahun setelahnya, di mana kemudian beliau memulai mendesain karya-karyanya bersama keponakannya, Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967) sampai tahun 1940. Pada tahun 1918, Le Corbusier bertemu dengan Amédée Ozenfant, seorang pelukis Cubist. Ozenfant mendukungnya untuk melukis, di mana kemudian periode hubungan kerjasama mereka pun dimulai. Dengan menganggap Cubism sebagai sesautu yang irrasional namun “romantis”, mereka kemudian mempublikasikan manifesto mereka, Après le Cubisme dan menetapkan teori pergerakan arsitektur modern yang baru, Purism. Purism Purism adalah suatu bentuk dari Cubism, yang merupakan salah satu pendekatan estetika dalam arsitektur. Le Corbusier dan Ozenfant pertama kali mendeskripsikan prinsip-prinsip dasar teori ini pada tahun 1918. Ekspresi dari Purism adalah ekspresi yang menampilkan kemurnian bangunan yang sepi ornamen, sejalan dengan adagium arsitektur modern yang menilai bahwa: "Ornament is a crime", teori ini muncul karena adanya keinginan untuk melepaskan diri dari penggunaan ornamen dengan berprinsip bahwa tanpa ornamen bangunan bisa tampak lebih indah. 
Hal ini juga di anut oleh beberapa tokoh lain, yaitu: Arsitek dan Pelukis asal Ceko, Bedřich Feuerstein, Eesti Kunstnike Rühm (Group of Estonian Artists) di Tallinn, Arnold Akberg, Mart Laarman, Henrik Olvi, and Juhan Raudsepp. Jurnal mereka, "Uue Kunsti Raamat", atau "Book of New Art", pada tahun 1928, sangat dipengaruhi oleh L'Esprit Nouveau. Selain itu, salah satu arsitek trekenal penganut Purism adalah Richard Meier.

Corbusier dikenal sebagai salah satu orang pertama yang menyadari pengaruh mobil terhadap bentuk dan rancangan pemukiman manusia. Ia tidak menyukai segala bentuk hiasan atau ornamentasi pada bangunan, dan pernah mengatakan bahwa "semua bangunan seharusnya berwarna putih".

Beberapa Karya beliau
Villa Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgar

Senin, 15 November 2010

LOUIS KAHN

One of the most influential architects of the mid-20th century, Louis Kahn (1901-1974) realised relatively few buildings, yet the formal restraint and emotional expressiveness of his Jonas Salk Institute, Kimbell Art Museum and the Capital Complex in Dhaka are regarded as an inspired progression from the International Style.

When Louis Kahn’s corpse was found by the NYPD on the evening of 17 March 1974 in the public lavatory at Penn Station in New York, it took several days for the police to identify him as one of the world’s most admired architects. Kahn had died swiftly of a heart attack and the only form of identification among his possessions was his passport in which he had crossed out his address.

On the evening of his death, Kahn had flown back to the US from India where he was building the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad. He had gone to Penn Station to board a train home to Philadelphia. The Institute of Management and another ongoing work, the Capital Complex of government buildings at Dhaka in Bangladesh, were not only Kahn’s most ambitious project, but among his architectural masterpieces. Yet he had built so little during his life that he died bankrupt owing hundreds of thousands of dollars.
The few buildings that Louis Kahn did realise were so remarkable that they established him as one of the most important figures in 20th century architecture, whose influence is compared to that of Le Corbusier and Mies Van Der Rohe, yet whose work offered new intellectual possibilities to the younger generation of architects searching for alternatives to their hegemonic International Style. Convinced that contemporary architects could – and should – produce buildings which were as monumental and as spiritually inspiring as the ancient ruins of Greece and Egypt, Kahn devoted his career to the uncompromising pursuit of formal perfection and emotional expression.
Eminent though he later became, much of Kahn’s life was a struggle. His Estonian father, Leopold, met Louis’ mother, Bertha, in the Latvian city of Riga, while there on army leave. The couple settled on the Estonian island of Saarema (then called Ösel) where Louis was born in 1901 followed by his sister, Sarah, and brother, Oscar. The family was so poor that Leopold left for the US and, once he had found work, sent for Bertha and the children to join him in Philadelphia. Shortly after their arrival, five year-old Louis was afflicted by scarlet fever. Together with the facial scars left by an earlier accident, when he burnt himself on a coal fire, this illness left him too weak to start school and he was taught at home. When Louis finally went to school, the shy boy was so gifted at art and music that his teachers steered him towards the special courses for talented students in Philadelphia’s enlightened education system. Despite his family’s poverty, Kahn received an excellent education and, inspired by a high school course in architectural history, won a scholarship to study architecture at the University of Pennsylvania.
There he was taught by Paul Philippe Cret, a Frenchman schooled in the rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition. An inspiring teacher, Cret instilled his students with his own belief that the architect’s responsibility was to interpret their own time. “Our architecture is modern and cannot be anything else,” he decreed. Kahn excelled in his four years at the University of Pennsylvania and, after graduating in 1924, was employed by the Philadelphia architect John Molitor. Four years after graduating he had saved enough money to travel to Europe, where he visited his relatives in Estonia and saw his first modern movement buildings in Berlin. Back in Philadelphia, he found work with Paul Cret and married Esther Israeli, a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania.
When the 1930s depression struck, Kahn was made redundant and, for several years, he and Esther were supported by her parents. Despairing of finding work as an architect, he continued his studies and flung himself into the debates stimulated by T-Square, the radical architectural journal based in Philadelphia. Inspired by Le Corbusier’s work in Europe, Kahn developed his own theories of the architect’s social responsibility, particularly in mass housing. Professionally he struggled for commissions, partly because of the depression and partly because, as a Jew without money or connections, he was alienated from the wealthy protestants who dominated US architecture.
Kahn won a few modest commissions from Jewish friends in Philadelphia and the city’s Housing Authority. In 1947 he started teaching at Yale having rejected an earlier offer from Harvard, as he was loath to leave Philadelphia. He felt happier with Yale, which was a train ride away, and taught there for eight years before becoming a professor at the University of Pennsylvania. As an architect Kahn was limited to modest local projects, until in 1951 he won his first major commission – an extension to the Yale Art Gallery.
The Yale commission also offered an opportunity for Kahn to experiment with the ideas he had developed since a trip to Greece, Rome and Egypt when he had become convinced that modern architecture lacked the monumental and spiritual qualities of ancient buildings. “Our stuff looks so tinny compared to it,” he wrote to his office colleagues in Philadelphia. Kahn was convinced that, as a modern architect, his responsibility was to create buildings with those qualities using contemporary materials and construction techniques.
Working with simple materials, notably brick and concrete. Kahn applied his principles to create buildings instilled with the spiritual qualities for which he strove through a masterful sense of space and light. From the 1951-53 Yale Art Gallery extension, to subsequent projects such as the 1954-59 Trenton Boathouse in New Jersey and the 1957-62 Richards Medical Towers in Philadelphia, Kahn combined visually compelling spaces with drama as the changing light transformed the sensory experience of being in the building at different times of the day and night. By the time he began the 1959-67 Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, Kahn had mastered this approach to create his first masterpiece, an extraordinarily inspiring sequence of buildings.
Despite the acclaim for these buildings, Kahn still struggled to secure major commissions, not least in his home town, Philadelphia, where he wrangled for years with the city planners over the redevelopment of the centre. Painfully shy since childhood, Kahn was also blessed and cursed by an uncompromising character that drove him to become such an extraordinary architect but also to clash with clients. Impatient of the deadlines and budgets routinely imposed on architects, he came to loath such constraints and frequently lost commissions to less gifted, but more amenable architects.
Kahn’s private life was equally turbulent, marred by financial difficulties but also by secrecy. He remained married to Esther, with whom he had a daughter, Sue Ann, but had two more children, born to women with whom he conducted long and passionate love affairs. Kahn had a second daughter, Alexandra born in 1954, with Anne Tyng, a young architect who worked for him in Philadelphia, and a son, Nathaniel, born in 1962, with another collaborator, the landscape architect Harriet Pattison. Years after Kahn’s death, Nathaniel made a documentary film, My Architect, about his father.
Just as Anne Tyng made an important contribution to Kahn’s 1950s buildings, Pattison arose his interest in the relationship of architecture to its location and landscape during the 1960s. This was one of the most magical elements of the Salk Institute, perched on a cliff above the Pacific Ocean, and was equally important to Kahn’s 1960-65 campus buildings at Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania, the 1967-72 Exeter Library in New Hampshire and 1968-74 Yale Center for British Art. Striving for perfection, Kahn’s development during this period culminated in another US masterpiece in the 1967-72 Kimbell Art Museum at Fort Worth in Texas, which is still regarded as an extraordinarily inspiring and empathetic environment for painting and sculpture.
Bereft of another major commission in the US, even after Kimbell, Kahn poured his energy into his most demanding projects, the 1962-74 Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad and the monumental Capital Complex in Dhaka, which he began in 1962 but which was completed after his death. It was in Dhaka that Kahn realised his dream of building a city of the future. The project was intensely problematic, construction was not only disrupted by political unrest and, eventually a war for independence in Bangladesh, but bedevilled by the logistical difficulties of building in a city prey to floods and storms. The result is a magical sequence of buildings that appear to float above the surrounding water in vernacular red brick brilliantly constructed by local craftsmen. In a Muslim city prey to painful poverty and natural disaster, Louis Kahn achieved his goal of creating a monumental modern architecture, which is at once spiritually uplifting and humane. 



Jonas salk institute of biological studies

Kimbell art museum

university art center